Origin of the word
The most popular explanation that is given to the word
telugu is that it comes from the word
trilinga, i.e. from the three temples
at Srisailam, Drakasharamam,
and Kaleshwaram. Many scholars may not accept this
diverse views on Telugu:
Khandavalli Lakshmi Ranjanam
comes from the word talaing. Since tala refers
to head, talaings refers to leaders. Probably, talaings were civilized people
the tribals in the area of current Andhra Pradesh. Hence the name
talaings. Later this must have given rise to the words telungu
Some say that
the word Telugu comes from the Sanskrit forms trilinga or
trikalinga: Actually, the word kalinga itself is a Dravidian
In Kui language, rice is called Kulinga. Since Kuis were mainly rice
eaters, Aryans might have called them kulingas or kalingas.
Marepalli Ramachandra Shastri
language, unga is form for plural. Telu means
white. Hence, telunga probably refers to people who are white
Ganti Jogi Somayaji
south in Proto-Dravidian. Hence tenungu refers to Southerners.
the two words is older? Telugu or tenugu? Some
say that tenugu is older than Telugu because
Nannaya used the word tenugu and Ketana who is younger than
Nannaya used the word Telugu in his Andhra Bhaashaa Bhushanam. Malliya Raechana
wrote a grammar book (Lakshana Granthamu) called Kavi Janaashrayamu. But he
didn't use this word in the place of 'praasa' anywhere, so we are not sure what
he really used.
notion is that the first person to use the word trilinga is
Vidyanaatha in Kakatiya era. Actually, the first person to use the word trilinga
is Rajashekhara in Vidhdhasaala Bhanjika. He is the first person to use trilinga
with a ra vattu. Markandeya and Vayu Puranas mention only tilinga. One of the oldest works in Tamil called Agattiyam says
Konganam Kannadam Kollam telungam. On
the whole, it is more probable that the word Telugu is older
than the word tenugu.
The Telugu alphabet is called Onamaalu. There is a good reason and a little bit of history for this.
Just as Buddhism was widely practiced in the ancient Telugu country, Jainism flourished in the Kannade country. The writers of the
earliest Kannada literature were Jains. They were the religious leaders and educators of that day. Common folks sent their children to Jain gurus for education. The gurus initiated the Aksharabhyasam of the children with a prayer to the Thirthankaras and Siddhas.That prayer started with "Siddham Namaha."
The close ties with the Kannada country helped spread the Jain traditions in the Telugu country.
There is even a school of thought that the Jain and Buddhist literature that existed before Nannaya was destroyed by scholars and kings who embraced Hinduism. Even if the literature was destroyed, the traditions survived and Aksharabhyasam continued to be initiated with
the prayer - Siddham Namaha.
In later years, between 10th and 14th centuries, Saivism became wide spread in the Telugu country
(Paa So wrote Basava Puranam during this time). Now the religious leaders and teachers were the Saivites and they initiated Aksharabhyasam with a prayer that started with "Onnamassivaaya." But the Jain tradition did not die away. The initiation prayer generally took the form of
"Onnamassivaya Siddham Namaha." Over the years it became O-Na-Ma-See-Vaa-Yaa-See-Dham-Namaha and the alphabet that was learnt with
this prayer came to be called "O-na-ma-lu."
Source: Mana lipi puttupoorvotharaalu by Thirumala Raamachandra.
Telugu script: cha,
tcha, chha; ja, tja, jha.
In Telugu we have three distinct pronunciations for "cha" and "ja". While the soft sounds of "cha" and "ja" and the harsh sounds of "chha" and "jha"
are not uncommon, found in many if not all-Indian languages, the "tcha" and "tja" of Telugu are rather unique and have interesting history both in
terms of their pronunciation and the way they are written. As you know, "tcha" and "tja" are written as "cha" and "ja" but with the Telugu numeral
2 written on top of the letter.
"Tcha" and "tja" are found in Marathi also. But unlike Telugu, Marathi was derived from Sanskrit and Prairie, neither,
of which have "tcha" or "tja." Hindi, which also derived from Sanskrit and Prakrit, does not have these sounds. So, how did Marathi get them?
It is believed that the sounds were adapted from Telugu. Some scholars believe that Telugu and Bengali in turn acquired them from Pali.
Kakanuri Appakavi, a grammarian from the 17th century, wrote that a dot placed on "cha" indicates the pronunciation of "tcha" and similarly a dot
on "ja" indicates "tja". That tradition, if it was ever practiced, has long since disappeared.
Who started the current tradition of writing the Telugu
numeral 2 on top of "cha" and "ja" to note their pronunciation as "tcha" and "tja" respectively? Looks like the credit for that goes to Charles Philip
Brown (popularly known as CP Brown). His reason for this notation is simple: a Telugu person knows the difference between the pronunciation of
cha in Chandrudu and Chali (cold) but how will a foreigner reading a Telugu text know the difference? To make it convenient for non-Telugus to
learn proper pronunciation, Brown placed Telugu numeral 1 on top of "cha" and "ja" for standard pronunciation and Telugu numeral 2 on top of "cha" and "ja"
when they are to be pronounced as "tcha" and "tja" respectively. This notation became popular and was recognized in 1836 in the Telugu grammar written
by Ravipati Gurumurthy Sastry. With the passage of time the printing presses dropped placing 1 on "cha" and "ja" but continued to place 2 on the letters to
indicate "tcha" and "tja."
Source: Mana lipi puttu purvotharaalu by Thirumala Ramachandra.